Should convicted criminals have the right to vote?

Felony disenfranchisement is the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes deemed felonies. Prisoners cannot vote while in jail in Brazil but can vote when they are released (even if they are convicted of a felony.)

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Should non-violent prisoners be released from jail in order to reduce overcrowding?

Prison overcrowding is a social phenomenon occurring when the demand for space in prisons in a jurisdiction exceeds the capacity for prisoners.The issues associated with prison overcrowding are not new, and have been brewing for many years. During the United States’ War on Drugs, the states were left responsible for solving the prison overcrowding issue with a limited amount of money. Moreover, federal prison populations may increase if states adhere to federal policies, such as mandatory minimum sentences. On the other hand, the Justice Department provides billions of dollars a year for state and local law enforcement to ensure they follow the policies set forth by the federal government concerning U.S. prisons. Prison overcrowding has affected some states more than others, but overall, the risks of overcrowding are substantial and there are solutions to this problem.

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Should the government hire private companies to run prisons?

Private prisons are incarceration centers that are run by a for-profit company instead of a government agency. The companies that operate private prisons are paid a per-diem or monthly rate for each prisoner they keep in their facilities. In Brazil prisoners are selected for private prisons on the basis of positive prior behavior and lack of connections with criminal factions in order to avoid faction-generated violence. Opponents of private prisons argue that incarceration is a social responsibility and that entrusting it to for-profit companies is inhumane. Proponents argue that prisons run by private companies are consistently more cost effective than those run by government agencies.

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Should drug traffickers receive the death penalty?

Since 1999, the executions of drug smugglers have become more common in Indonesia, Iran, China and Pakistan. In March 2018, U.S. President Donald Trump proposed executing drug traffickers to fight his country’s opioid epidemic. 32 countries impose the death penalty for drug smuggling. Seven of these countries (China, Indonesia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Singapore) routinely execute drug offenders. Asia and the Middle East’s tough approach contrasts with many Western countries who have legalized cannabis in recent years (selling cannabis in Saudi Arabia is punished by beheading).

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Should funding for local police departments be redirected to social and community based programs?

“Defund the police” is a slogan that supports divesting funds from police departments and reallocating them to non-policing forms of public safety and community support, such as social services, youth services, housing, education, healthcare and other community resources.

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Should police departments be allowed to use military grade equipment?

Militarization of police refers to the use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement officers. This includes the use of armored vehicles, assault rifles, flashbang grenades, sniper rifles, and SWAT teams. Proponents argue that this equipment increases officers’ safety and enables them to better protect the public and other first responders. Opponents argue that police forces which received military equipment were more likely to have violent encounters with the public.

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Should Brazil raise taxes on the rich?

Australia currently has a progressive tax system whereby high income earners pay a higher percentage of tax than low income tax. A more progressive income tax system has been proposed as a tool towards reducing wealth inequality.

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Should the government make cuts to public spending in order to reduce the national debt?

In 2015, Brazil attempted to close its budget deficit by announcing spending cuts and tax increases totaling 65bn reais ($16.9bn). This came after the country’s credit rating was reduced by major credit agencies after the government revealed a budget shortfall of about R$40 billion.

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Should the government raise or lower the tax rate for corporations?

Brazil currently levies a 34% tax on all businesses. The average corporate tax rate worldwide is 22.6%. Opponents of argue that raising the rate will discourage foreign investment and hurt the economy. Proponents argue that the profits corporations generate should be taxed just like citizens taxes.

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Do you believe labor unions help or hurt the economy?

Labor unions represent many workers in many industries of Brazil. Their role is to bargain over wages, benefits, working conditions for their members. Larger unions also typically engage in lobbying activities and electioneering at the state and federal level. Critics of Brazil’s unions argue that unions cannot strike the sort of deals that are common in other countries including having workers accept pay cuts during downturns. Proponents of unions argue that Brazil has a long history of worker abuse and unions are necessary to keep workers treated humanely.

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Do you support a universal basic income program?

A Universal Basic Income program is social security program where all citizens of a country receive a regular, unconditional sum of money from the government. The funding for Universal Basic Income comes from taxation and government owned entities including income from endowments, real estate and natural resources. Several countries, including Finland, India and Brazil, have experimented with a UBI system but have not implemented a permanent program. The longest running UBI system in the world is the Alaska Permanent Fund in the U.S. state of Alaska. In the Alaska Permanent Fund each individual and family receives a monthly sum that is funded by dividends from the state’s oil revenues. Proponents of UBI argue that it will reduce or eliminate poverty by providing everyone with a basic income to cover housing and food. Opponents argue that a UBI would be detrimental to economies by encouraging people to either work less or drop out of the workforce entirely.

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Should the government raise the federal minimum wage?

In 2014, the government raised the minimum wage by 6.78 percent to 724 reais per month in 2014. Opponents argue that the hikes have outpaced the levels of productivity, fueled inflation and raised government payrolls as deficit swell. Proponents argue that higher wages lead to economic growth since the workers who make minimum wages typically spend their entire income.

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Should the government add or increase tariffs on products imported into the country?

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between countries.

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Should there be fewer or more restrictions on current welfare benefits?

In 2011 the level of public spending on the welfare state by the British Government accounted for £113.1 billion, or 16% of government. By 2020 welfare spending will rise to 1/3rd of all spending making it the largest expense followed by housing benefit, council tax benefit, benefits to the unemployed, and benefits to people with low incomes.

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Should bankers’ bonuses be capped at 100% of their pay?

In 2014, the EU passed legislation that capped bankers' bonuses at 100% of their pay or 200% with shareholder approval. There are currently no caps on banker's pay in Brazil. Proponents of the cap say that it will reduce incentives for bankers to take excessive risk similar to what led to the 2008 financial crisis. Opponents say that any cap on bankers' pay will push up non-bonus pay and cause bank's costs to rise.

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Should Brazilian citizens be allowed to save or invest their money in offshore bank accounts?

An offshore (or foreign) bank account is a bank account you have outside of your country of residence. The benefits of an offshore bank account include tax reduction, privacy, currency diversification, asset protection from lawsuits, and reducing your political risk. In April 2016, Wikileaks released 11.5 million confidential documents, known as the Panama Papers, which provided detailed information on 214,000 offshore companies serviced by the Panamanian Law Firm, Mossack Fonesca. The document exposed how world leaders and wealthy individuals hide money in secret offshore tax shelters. The release of the documents renewed proposals for laws banning the use of offshore accounts and tax havens. Proponents of the of the ban argue they should be outlawed because they have a long history of being vehicles for tax evasion, money laundering, illicit arms dealing and funding terrorism. Opponents of the ban argue that punitive regulations will make it harder for American companies to compete and will further discourage businesses from locating and investing in the United States.

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Should welfare recipients be tested for drugs?

5 U.S. states have passed laws requiring welfare recipients to be tested for drugs. Brazil does not currently test welfare recipients for drugs. Proponents argue that testing will prevent public funds from being used to subsidize drugs habits and help get treatment for those that are addicted to drugs. Opponents argue that it is a waste of money since the tests will cost more money than they save.

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Should pension payments be increased for retired government workers?

A government pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during the period in which a person is employed by the government. When the government employee retires they are able to receive periodic payments from the fund in order to support themselves. As the birth rate continues to fall and the life expectancy rises governments worldwide are predicting funding shortfalls for pensioners. Brazilians retire at an average age of 54, and some public servants, military officials and politicians manage to collect multiple pensions totaling well over $100,000 year. In 2015 economists warned that the fund could face a budget shortfall in 2017.

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Should the government acquire equity stakes in companies it bails out during a recession?

A state-owned enterprise is a business enterprise where the government or state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership. During the 2020 Coronavirus outbreak Larry Kudlow, the White House’s top economic advisor, said the Trump administration would consider asking for an equity stake in corporations that needed taxpayer aid. “One of the ideas is, if we provide assistance, we might take an equity position,” Kudlow said Wednesday at the White House, adding that the 2008 bailout of [the automaker General Motors] had been a good deal for the federal government. After the 2008 financial crisis the US Government invested $51 billion into GM’s bankruptcy through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. In 2013 the Government sold its stake in GM for $39 billion. The Center for Automotive Research found that the bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved 34.9 billion in tax revenue. Proponents argue that US taxpayers deserve a return on their investments if private companies need capital. Opponents argue that governments should never own shares of private companies.

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Should the government use economic stimulus to aid the country during times of recession?

An economic stimulus is a monetary or fiscal policy enacted by governments with the intent of stabilizing their economies during a fiscal crisis. The policies include an increase in government spending on infrastructure, tax cuts and lowering interest rates. In 2015 Brazil's president Dilma Rousseff enacted a stimulus package of R$133bn. The package was intended to spur investment in infrastructure and boost global investor's confidence in Brazil's economy.

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Should the government ban surcharges tacked onto concert tickets, cable bills, banking services, hotel bookings and other purchases?

Junk fees are hidden and unexpected charges that are often not included in the initial or listed price of a transaction but are added on at the time of the payment. Airlines, hotels, concert ticket providers and banks often add them onto the cost of a service or good after the consumer has seen the original price. Proponents of the rule argue that getting rid of these fees will make prices more transparent for consumers and save them money. Opponents argue that private businesses would simply raise prices in response to the regulations and there isn’t a guarantee that flying or staying in a hotel would be any less expensive.

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Should the government tax stock buybacks?

Stock buybacks are the re-acquisition by a company of its own shares. It represents an alternate and more flexible way (relative to dividends) of returning money to shareholders. When used in coordination with increased corporate leverage, buybacks can increase share price. In most countries, a corporation can repurchase its own stock by distributing cash to existing shareholders in exchange for a fraction of the company's outstanding equity; that is, cash is exchanged for a reduction in the number of shares outstanding. The company either retires the repurchased shares or keeps them as treasury stock, available for re-issuance. Proponents of the tax argue that buybacks substitute for productive investments, thereby harming the economy and its growth prospects. Opponents argue that a 2016 Harvard Business Review study showed that research and development and capital expenditures soared over the same period when shareholder payouts and stock buybacks were rising sharply.

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Should employers be required to pay men and women the same salary for the same job?

A world bank study recently estimated that one hour of a woman's work is worth a 1/4th less than a man’s in Brazil. Proponents of equal pay laws argue that a higher income leads to a higher level of private savings, which has a direct positive effect on growth. Opponents argue that the world bank study doesn’t account for women with children who take jobs that require less hours.

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Should the government provide tax incentives to private companies to keep jobs within the country?

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Should disposable products (such as plastic cups, plates, and cutlery) that contain less than 50% of biodegradable material be banned?

In 2016, France became the first country to ban the sale of plastic disposable products that contain less than 50% of biodegradable material and in 2017, India passed a law banning all plastic disposable plastic products.

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Should the government increase environmental regulations on businesses to reduce carbon emissions?

After the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva signed the National Climate Change Policy (PNMC). The policy aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 36.1% to 38.9% by the year 2020. 

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Do you support the use of hydraulic fracking to extract oil and natural gas resources?

Fracking is the process of extracting oil or natural gas from shale rock. Water, sand and chemicals are injected into the rock at high pressure which fractures the rock and allows the oil or gas to flow out to a well. While fracking has significantly boosted oil production, there are environmental concerns that the process is contaminating groundwater.

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Do you support the use of genetically engineered crops and foods?

Genetically modified foods (or GM foods) are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Brazil is the second largest producer of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the world, behind only the United States. Brazil has about 37 million hectares (92 million acres) of land planted with GM crops. The sale of GMOs was banned in 1998 due to a lawsuit by the Brazilian Institute for Consumer Defense. In 2003, the government again permitted sale of GMO foods. An estimated 90% of all soybean crops in Brazil are genetically modified, making it the largest GMO crop.

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Should researchers be allowed to use animals in testing the safety of drugs, vaccines, medical devices, and cosmetics?

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Should cities be allowed to offer private companies economic incentives to relocate?

In November 2018 the online e-commerce company Amazon announced it would be building a second headquarters in New York City and Arlington, VA. The announcement came a year after the company announced it would accept proposals from any North American city who wanted to host the headquarters. Amazon said the company could invest over $5 billion and the offices would create up to 50,000 high paying jobs. More than 200 cities applied and offered Amazon millions of dollars in economic incentives and tax breaks. For the New York City headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $2.8 billion in tax credits and construction grants. For the Arlington, VA headquarters the city and state governments gave Amazon $500 million in tax breaks. Opponents argue that governments should spend the tax revenue on public projects instead and that the federal government should pass laws banning tax incentives. The European Union has strict laws which prevent member cities from bidding against each other with state aid (tax incentives) in an effort to lure private companies. Proponents argue that the jobs and tax revenue created by the companies eventually offset the cost of any awarded incentives.

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Should the government build a network of electric vehicle charging stations?

In 2022 the European Union, Canada, the U.K. and the U.S. state of California approved regulations banning the sale of new gasoline-powered cars and trucks by 2035. Plug-in hybrids, full electrics and hydrogen cell vehicles would all count toward the zero-emission targets, though auto makers will only be able to use plug-in hybrids to meet 20% of the overall requirement. The regulation will impact only new-vehicle sales and affects only manufacturers, not dealerships. Traditional internal-combustion vehicles will still be legal to own and drive after 2035, and new models can still be sold until 2035. Volkswagen and Toyota have said they aim to sell only zero-emission cars in Europe by that time.

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Should the government provide subsidies to taxpayers who purchase an electric vehicle?

Joe Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) in August 2022, which allocated millions to combating climate change and other energy provisions while additionally establishing a $7,500 tax credit for electric vehicles.  To qualify for the subsidy 40% of the critical minerals used in electric-vehicle batteries must be sourced in the U.S.  EU and South Korean officials argues that the subsidies discriminated against their automotive, renewable-energy, battery and energy-intensive industries. Proponents argue that the tax credits will help combat climate change by encouraging consumers to purchase EVs and stop driving gas powered automobiles. Opponents argue that the tax credits will only hurt domestic battery and EV producers.

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Should homeless individuals, that have refused available shelter or housing, be allowed to sleep or encamp on public property?

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Should there be more or less privatization of hospital and healthcare services?

Privatization is the process of transferring governmental control and ownership of a service or industry to a privately owned business.

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Do you support the legalization of Marijuana?

Marijuana is currently illegal to possess, grow, distribute or sell in Brazil. People caught possessing small amounts of marijuana may be required to serve community service or attend classes on its effects. Those in possession of large amounts of marijuana may be charged with trafficking and sentenced 5 to 15 years in prison.

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Should the government regulate the prices of life-saving drugs?

Proponents of drug price regulation argue that drug makers raise prices to benefit the value of their stock and invest little of their profits in the development and research of new drugs. Opponents of regulation argue that consumers rely on drug companies to develop new drugs and limiting prices will prevent new lifesaving drugs from being developed. Brazil is ranked top of the pharmaceutical markets in Latin America and third in North America, with a market value of $25.60bn in 2011.

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Should cities open drug “safe havens” where people who are addicted to illegal drugs can use them under the supervision of medical professionals?

In 2018, officials in the U.S. city of Philadelphia city proposed opening a “safe haven” in an effort to combat the city's heroin epidemic. In 2016 64,070 people died in the U.S. from drug overdoses - a 21% increase from 2015. 3/4 of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. are caused by the opioid class of drugs which includes prescription painkillers, heroin and fentanyl. To combat the epidemic cities including Vancouver, BC and Sydney, AUS opened safe havens where addicts can inject drugs under the supervision of medical professionals. The safe havens reduce the overdose death rate by insuring the addicted patients are given drugs that are not contaminated or poisoned. Since 2001 5,900 people have overdosed at a safe haven in Sydney, Australia but no one has died. Proponents argue that the safe havens are the only proven solution to lower the overdose fatality rate and prevent the spread of diseases like HIV-AIDS. Opponents argue that safe havens may encourage illegal drug use and re-direct funding from traditional treatment centers.

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Should the government fund the World Health Organization?

The World Health Organization was founded in 1948 and is a specialized agency of the United Nations whose main objective is “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.” The organization provides technical assistance to countries, sets international health standards and guidelines, and collects data on global health issues through the World Health Survey. The WHO has led global public health efforts including the development of an Ebola Vaccine and the near-eradication of polio and smallpox. The organization is run by a decision-making body composed of representatives from 194 countries. It is funded by voluntary contributions from member countries and private donors. In 2018 and 2019 the WHO had a $5 billion budget and the leading contributors were the United States (15%) , the EU (11%) and the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation (9%). Supporters of the WHO argue that cutting funding will hamper the international fight against the Covid-19 pandemic and sap the U.S. of global influence.

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Should the government require employees of large businesses to be vaccinated from COVID?

In September 2021 Italy became the first European Country to make COVID-19 health passes mandatory for all workers. By the end of the same month Canada, the United States, Australia, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia and Turkmenistan all announced similar vaccine mandates. Proponents of the mandate argue that these mandates are the only way to end the global COVID-19 pandemic. Opponents cite evidence that people who already have natural immunity are at heightened risk of vaccine side effects caused by an augmented inflammatory response.

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Do you support a single-payer healthcare system?

Single-payer healthcare is a system where every citizen pays the government to provide core healthcare services for all residents. Under this system the government may provide the care themselves or pay a private healthcare provider to do so. In a single-payer system all residents receive healthcare regardless of age, income or health status. Countries with single-payer healthcare systems include the U.K., Canada, Taiwan, Israel, France, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.

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Should medical boards penalize doctors who give health advice that contradicts contemporary scientific consensus?

In 2022 lawmakers in the U.S. state of California passed legislation which empowered the state medical board to discipline doctors in the state who “disseminate misinformation or disinformation” that contradicts the “contemporary scientific consensus” or is “contrary to the standard of care.” Proponents of the law argue that doctors should be punished for spreading misinformation and that there is clear consensus on certain issues such as that apples contain sugar, measles is caused by a virus, and Down syndrome is caused by a chromosomal abnormality. Opponents argue that the law limits freedom of speech and scientific “consensus” often changes within mere months.

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Should the government increase funding for mental health research and treatment?

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Should foreigners, currently residing in Brazil, have the right to vote?

In most countries, suffrage, the right to vote, is generally limited to citizens of the country. Some countries, however, extend limited voting rights to resident non-citizens.

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Should corporations, unions, and non-profit organizations be allowed to donate to political parties?

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Should the minimum voting age be lowered?

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Should politicians over 75 years of age have required to pass a mental competency test?

Countries that have mandatory retirements for politicians include Argentina (age 75), Brazil (75 for judges and prosecutors), Mexico (70 for judges and prosecutors) and Singapore (75 for members of parliament.)

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Are you in favor of decriminalizing drug use?

In 2006, the government passed “Drug Law 11.343” which legalized drug consumption and prohibited incarceration for people accused of using drugs. The law still penalized drug traffickers. Opponents argue that in order to discourage drug use, drug users should also be subject to jail terms. Proponents argue that jail terms do little to prevent drug use and drug addicts should be given treatment instead.

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Should teachers be allowed to carry guns at school?

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Should the government regulate social media sites, as a means to prevent fake news and misinformation?

In January 2018 Germany passed the NetzDG law which required platforms like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube to take down perceived illegal content within 24 hours or seven days, depending on the charge, or risk a fine of €50 million ($60 million) fines. In July 2018 representatives from Facebook, Google and Twitter denied to the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary committee that they censor content for political reasons. During the hearing Republican members of Congress criticized the social media companies for politically motivated practices in removing some content, a charge the companies rejected. In April 2018 the European Union issued a series of proposals that would crack down on “online misinformation and fake news.” In June 2018 President Emmanuel Macron of France proposed a law which would give French authorities the power to immediately halt “the publication of information deemed to be false ahead of elections.”

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Should social media companies ban political advertising?

In October 2019 Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey announced that his social media company would ban all political advertising. He stated that political messages on the platform should reach users through the recommendation of other users – not through paid reach. Proponents argue that social media companies don’t have the tools to stop the spread of false information since their advertising platforms aren’t moderated by human beings. Opponents argue that the ban will disenfranchise candidates and campaigns who rely on social media for grassroots organizing and fundraising.

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Should the government pass laws which protect whistleblowers?

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Should it be illegal to burn the Brazilian flag?

Flag desecration is any act that is carried out with the intention of damaging or destroying a national flag in public. This is commonly done in an effort to make a political statement against a nation or its policies. Some nations have acts that ban flag desecration while others have laws that protect the right to destroy a flag as a part of free speech. Some of these laws distinguish between a national flag and those of other countries.

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Should internet service providers be allowed to speed up access to popular websites (that pay higher rates) at the expense of slowing down access to less popular websites (that pay lower rates)?

Net neutrality is the principle that internet service providers should treat all data on the internet equally.

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Should there be term limits for members of Parliament?

Members of the Chamber of Deputies can currently serve an unlimited number of four year terms. Senators can currently serve an unlimited number of eight year terms. Presidents can only serve 2 terms of 4 years. Proponents argue that term limits help fight corruption and impose an equilibrium of power in government. Opponents argue that term limits prevent qualified officials from extending their terms in office.

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Should the government be able to monitor phone calls and emails?

In 2016 Brazil's lower chamber of Congress approved a bill that would require Brazilians to register personal details like their home address, telephone number and other private information when accessing websites. It would also expose citizens to possible charges of libel for comments made on social media. The new proposal is expected to make it easier for prosecutors to access citizens' personal information without the nuisance of having to obtain a court order.

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Should the government increase spending on public transportation?

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Should immigrants be required to pass a citizenship test to demonstrate a basic understanding of our country’s language, history, and government?

The American Civics test is an examination that all immigrants must pass to gain U.S. citizenship. The test asks 10 randomly selected questions which cover U.S. history, the constitution and government. In 2015 Arizona became the first state to require High School students to pass the test before they graduate.

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Should Brazil increase or decrease the amount of temporary work visas given to high-skilled immigrant workers?

Skilled temporary work visas are usually given to foreign scientists, engineers, programmers, architects, executives, and other positions or fields where demand outpaces supply. Most businesses argue that hiring skilled foreign workers allows them to competitively fill positions which are in high demand. Opponents argue that skilled immigrants decrease middle class wages and job tenure.

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Should immigrants to Brazil be allowed to hold dual citizenship status?

Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizen status of a person, which is defined exclusively by national laws, which vary and can be inconsistent with each other. Some countries do not permit dual citizenship. Most countries that permit dual citizenship still may not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory, for example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc.

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Should immigrants from high risk countries be banned from entering the country until the government improves its ability to screen out potential terrorists?

Proponents argue that this strategy would bolster national security by minimizing the risk of potential terrorists entering the country. Enhanced screening processes, once implemented, would provide a more thorough assessment of applicants, reducing the likelihood of malicious actors gaining entry. Critics argue that such a policy might inadvertently promote discrimination by broadly categorizing individuals based on their nation of origin rather than specific, credible threat intelligence. It may strain diplomatic relations with the affected countries and potentially harm the perception of the nation enacting the ban, being seen as hostile or prejudiced towards certain international communities. Additionally, genuine refugees fleeing terrorism or persecution in their home countries might be unjustly denied safe haven.

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Should people under the age of 18 years old be able to receive gender-transition treatments?

In April 2021 the legislature of the U.S. State of Arkansas introduced a bill that prohibited doctors from providing gender-transition treatments to people under 18 years old. The bill would make it a felony for doctors to administer puberty blockers, hormones and gender-reaffirming surgery to anyone under the age of 18. Opponents of the bill argue that it is an assault on transgender rights and that transition treatments are a private matter that should be decided between parents, their children and doctors. Supporters of the bill argue that children are too young to make the decision to receive gender transition treatment and only adults over the age of 18 should be allowed to do so.

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What is your stance on abortion?

Abortion is a medical procedure resulting in the termination of a human pregnancy and death of a fetus. In Brazil, abortion is only legal if a woman is raped or her life is in danger due to the pregnancy. A woman who receives an abortion can be sentenced from 1 to 3 years in detention.

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Should gay couples have the same adoption rights as straight couples?

LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. This may be in the form of a joint adoption by a same-sex couple, adoption by one partner of a same-sex couple of the other's biological child (step-child adoption) and adoption by a single LGBT person. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in 25 countries. Opponents of LGBT adoption question whether same-sex couples have the ability to be adequate parents while other opponents question whether natural law implies that children of adoption possess a natural right to be raised by heterosexual parents. Since constitutions and statutes usually fail to address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions often determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples.

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Do you support the death penalty?

Capital punishment or the death penalty is a legal process whereby a person is put to death as a punishment for a crime. Brazil abolished capital punishment in 1889.

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Should businesses be required to have women on their board of directors?

In December 2014, the German government announced a new rule which would require German companies to fill 30% of their board seats with women. In 2010 the Brazilian Senate proposed a law requiring state owned businesses to fill 40% of their seats with women. In 2016 the measure had not been acted on. In Norway 35.5% of boards contain women directors which is the highest percentage in the world.

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Do you support the legalization of same sex marriage?

In May of 2013, the National Justice Council legalized same sex marriage in every state. The ruling grants married same-sex couples the same rights as marriage heterosexual couples including the ability to adopt children, pensions, IVF, joint property ownership, and welfare benefits.

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Should hate speech be protected by freedom of speech laws?

Hate speech is defined as public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.

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Should transgender athletes be allowed to compete against athletes that differ from their assigned sex at birth?

In 2016 the International Olympic committee ruled that transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In 2018 the International Association of Athletics Federations, track’s governing body, ruled that women who have more than 5 nano-mols per liter of testosterone in their blood—like South African sprinter and Olympic gold medalist Caster Semenya—must either compete against men, or take medication to reduce their natural testosterone levels. The IAAF stated that women in the five-plus category have a “difference of sexual development.” The ruling cited a 2017 study by French researchers as proof that female athletes with testosterone closer to men do better in certain events: 400 meters, 800 meters, 1,500 meters, and the mile. "Our evidence and data show that testosterone, either naturally produced or artificially inserted into the body, provides significant performance advantages in female athletes," said IAAF President Sebastian Coe in a statement.

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Should terminally ill patients be allowed to end their lives via assisted suicide?

Euthanasia, the practice of ending a life prematurely in order to end pain and suffering, is currently considered a criminal offense. Assisted suicide is currently illegal in Brazil.

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Should women be allowed to wear a Niqāb, or face veil, to civic ceremonies?

Several Western countries including France, Spain and Canada have proposed laws which would ban Muslim women from wearing a Niqab in public spaces. A niqab is a cloth that covers the face and is worn by some Muslim women in public areas. Currently there is no Niqab ban in Brazil. Proponents argue that the ban infringes on individual rights and prevents people from expressing their religious beliefs. Opponents argue that face-coverings prevent the clear identification of a person, which is both a security risk, and a social hindrance within a society which relies on facial recognition and expression in communication.

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Should schools be allowed to require mandatory diversity training for students?

Diversity training is any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively. On April 22, 2022, Florida Governor DeSantis signed into law the “Individual Freedom Act.” The bill prohibited schools and companies from mandating diversity training as a requirement for attendance or employment. If schools or employers violated the law they would be exposed to expanded civil liability exposures. Banned mandatory training topics include: 1. Members of one race, color, sex, or national origin are morally superior to members of another. 2. An individual, by virtue of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin, is inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously. Shortly after Governor DeSantis signed the bill, a group of individuals filed a lawsuit alleging that the law imposes unconstitutional viewpoint-based restrictions on speech in violation of their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights.

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Should schools be allowed to require mandatory diversity training for teachers and faculty?

Diversity training is any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively. On April 22, 2022, Florida Governor DeSantis signed into law the “Individual Freedom Act.” The bill prohibited schools and companies from mandating diversity training as a requirement for attendance or employment. If schools or employers violated the law they would be exposed to expanded civil liability exposures. Banned mandatory training topics include: 1. Members of one race, color, sex, or national origin are morally superior to members of another. 2. An individual, by virtue of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin, is inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously. Shortly after Governor DeSantis signed the bill, a group of individuals filed a lawsuit alleging that the law imposes unconstitutional viewpoint-based restrictions on speech in violation of their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights.

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Should companies be allowed to require mandatory diversity training for employees?

Diversity training is any program designed to facilitate positive intergroup interaction, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and generally teach individuals who are different from others how to work together effectively. On April 22, 2022, Florida Governor DeSantis signed into law the “Individual Freedom Act.” The bill prohibited schools and companies from mandating diversity training as a requirement for attendance or employment. If schools or employers violated the law they would be exposed to expanded civil liability exposures. Banned mandatory training topics include: 1. Members of one race, color, sex, or national origin are morally superior to members of another. 2. An individual, by virtue of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin, is inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive, whether consciously or unconsciously. Shortly after Governor DeSantis signed the bill, a group of individuals filed a lawsuit alleging that the law imposes unconstitutional viewpoint-based restrictions on speech in violation of their First and Fourteenth Amendment rights.

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Should frozen embryos be considered children?

An embryo is an initial stage of development of a multicellular organism. In humans, embryonic development is the part of the life cycle that begins just after fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process of fertilization where an egg is combined with sperm in vitro ("in glass").  In February 2024 the Supreme Court in the U.S. state of Alabama ruled that frozen embryos can be considered children under the state’s Wrongful Death of a Minor Act. The 1872 law allowed parents to recover punitive damages in the event of a child’s death. The Supreme Court case was brought by several couples whose embryos were destroyed when a patient dropped them on the floor in a fertility clinic’s cold-storage section. The court ruled that nothing in the law’s language stops it from being applied to frozen embryos. A dissenting judge on the court wrote that the ruling would force IVF providers in Alabama to stop freezing embryos. After the ruling several major health systems in Alabama suspended all IVF treatments. Proponents of the ruling include ant-abortion advocates who argue that embryos in test tubes should be considered children. Opponents include abortion rights advocates who argue that the ruling is based on Christian religious beliefs and is an assault on women’s rights.

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Should the military allow women to serve in combat roles?

In Brazil women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in the early 1980s when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps. Proponents argue that it will help the military retain more women, who tend to leave the services permanently when they have children. Opponents argue that allowing women to serve in these roles would limit the military's ability to fight in combat situations.

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Should tuition at public universities be free?

Brazil's federal universities offer tuition-free education to admitted students. From 2002 to 2012, the number of students attending college in Brazil doubled from 3.5million to 7 million. Millions of Brazilian students apply for spots at top-tier federal universities but are often

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Do you support the use of nuclear energy?

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station. Nuclear energy provides about 3% of Brazil's electricity. Proponents argue that nuclear energy is now safe and emits much less carbon emissions than coal plants. Opponents argue that recent nuclear disasters in Japan prove that nuclear power is far from safe.

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Should Brazil increase or decrease military spending?

In 2012, the Brazilian government spent R$138bn on their military in 2012 which amounted to 1.5% of GDP. This marked a 20% increase in spending since 2001. Brazil has the 10th largest military budget in the world.

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Should every 18 year old citizen be required to provide at least one year of military service?

Men are required to serve 18 months of military service in Brazil when they turn 18 years old. Due to the numerous exceptions to the program approximately 5-10% of those who volunteer actually serve.

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Should Brazil increase or decrease foreign aid spending?

In 2010 Brazil was one of the world's biggest providers of help to poor countries, committing nearly $4 billion a year to foreign aid. Aid included $20M per year to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), $300m Brazil to the World Food Programme and a $350m commitment to Haiti.

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Should Ukraine join NATO?

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Should there be restrictions on government arms sales to countries accused of committing human rights violations?

The United Nations defines human rights violations as deprivation of life; torture, cruel or degrading treatment or punishment; slavery and forced labor; arbitrary arrest or detention; arbitrary interference with privacy; war propaganda; discrimination; and advocacy of racial or religious hatred. In 1997 the U.S. Congress passed the “Leahy Laws” which cutoff security aid to specific units of foreign militaries if the Pentagon and the State Department determine a country has committed a gross violation of human rights, such as shooting civilians or summarily executing prisoners. Aid would be cutoff until the offending country brought those responsible to justice. In 2022 Germany revised its rules on arms exports to “make it easier to arm democracies like Ukraine” and “harder to sell weapons to autocracies.” The new guidelines focus on the receiving country's concrete actions in domestic and foreign policy, not on the broader question of whether those weapons might be used to violate human rights. Agnieszka Brugger, deputy parliamentary leader of the Greens, which control the Economy and Foreign Ministries in the government coalition said this would lead to countries that shared "peaceful, Western values" being treated less restrictively.

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Do you support the government calling for a permanent ceasefire in Gaza?

The Israel-Hamas war is an armed conflict between Israel and Hamas militant groups that has been taking place in and around the Gaza strip since October 7 2023. The conflict started when Hamas militant groups fired rockets and attacked communities and military bases in southern Israel. 1,139 people were killed in the attack including 766 civilians and 373 civilian forces. 250 Israelis were taken hostage by Hamas. On October 27th the Israeli Army launched a large-scale ground incursion into the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza strip. On October 24th 2023 the United Nations voted 121-14 in favor of a truce to the conflict. On November 3 Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced that Israel would not agree to a ceasefire until all Israeli hostages were released.On January 21st 2024 the health ministry announced that 25,000 Palestinians have been killed in the conflict.  As of January 25th 2024 130 Israeli hostages remain captive and 210 Israeli soldiers have been killed.

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Should the government support peace talks between Saudi Arabia and Iran?

In April 2023 Saudi Arabia and Iran’s foreign ministers met in Beijing to discuss reopening their diplomatic missions in their respective countries, to encourage visits of official and private delegations, and to facilitate visas for Iranian and Saudi citizens. They also agreed to discuss resuming flights between the 2 countries. This was the first formal diplomatic meeting between the 2 countries since China brokered a deal to restore relations between the top regional powers in March 2023. Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Mao Ning said that Beijing is ready to support both sides in fostering good relations, urging the international community to help the Middle Eastern countries resolve their differences. The countries broke formal ties in 2016 after Saudi Arabia executed Shia Muslim leader Nimr al-Nimr and Iranian protesters attacked Saudi diplomatic missions – one in a series of flashpoints between the two longstanding regional rivals. The relationship between the two countries worsened as they staked opposing positions on conflicts including the war in Syria and the war in Yemen, where the Iran-aligned Houthi movement has been fighting a Saudi-backed government after taking over the capital, Sanaa.

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Which side of the Israeli Palestinian conflict do you sympathize with more?

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Do you support a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?

The two-state solution is a proposed diplomatic solution for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The proposal envisions an independent State of Palestine that borders Israel. Palestinian leadership has supported the concept since the 1982 Arab Summit in Fez. In 2017 the Hamas (a Palestinian Resistance movement that controls the Gaza strip) accepted the solution without recognizing Israel as a state. The current Israeli leadership has stated that a two-state solution can only exist without Hamas and the current Palestinian leadership. The U.S. would have to take a central role in any talks between the Israelis and Palestinians. That has not happened since the Obama administration, when the secretary of state at the time, John Kerry, shuttled between the two sides in 2013 and 2014 before giving up in frustration. Under President Donald J. Trump, the United States shifted its energy from resolving the Palestinian issue to normalizing relations between Israel and its Arab neighbors. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has swung between saying he would be willing to consider a Palestinian nation with limited security powers, and opposing it outright. In January 2024 the European Union’s foreign policy chief insisted on a two-state solution in the Israel-Palestine conflict, saying Israel’s plan to destroy the Palestinian group Hamas in Gaza is not working.

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Should Brazil conduct military strikes against North Korea in order to destroy their long-range missile and nuclear weapons capabilities?

In January of 2016, North Korea announced that it detonated its first hydrogen bomb. CBS News reported that the U.S. intelligence community is skeptical that North Korea used a thermonuclear device. The blast was in single-digit kilotons, and a thermonuclear device is measured in megatons. North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, has been more ambitious than his father in the pursuit of long-range missiles and nuclear weapons, even in the face of warnings from China. Proponents of military strikes argue that North Korea crossed a line with its latest test and must be stopped at all costs. Opponents argue that North Korea repeatedly lies about its missile capabilities and that the we should let other countries in the region, such as China and South Korea, address this issue.

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Should the government attempt to influence foreign elections?

Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country. A 2016 study by Dov H. Levin concluded that the country intervening in most foreign elections was the United States with 81 interventions, followed by Russia (including the former Soviet Union) with 36 interventions from 1946 to 2000. In July 2018 U.S. Representative Ro Khanna introduced an amendment that would have prevented U.S. intelligence agencies from receiving funding that could be used to interfere in the elections of foreign governments. The amendment would ban U.S. agencies from “hacking foreign political parties; engaging in the hacking or manipulation of foreign electoral systems; or sponsoring or promoting media outside the United States that favors one candidate or party over another.” Proponents of election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power. Opponents argue that the amendment would send a message to other foreign countries that the U.S. does not interfere in election and set a global gold standard for preventing election interference. Opponents argue that election interference helps keep hostile leaders and political parties out of power.

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Should Brazil provide military supplies and funding to Ukraine?

On February 24 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War that began in 2014. The invasion caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II, with around 7.1 million Ukrainians fleeing the country and a third of the population displaced. It has also caused global food shortages.

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Which qualities are most important to you in a candidate?